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By Imogen Evans, Hazel Thornton, and Iain Chalmers


61 Goodare H. Studies that do not have informed consent from participants should not
be published. In: Doyal L, Tobias JS, eds. Informed consent in medical research. BMJ
Books 2001, pp131–3.

62 Fallowfield L, Jenkins V, Farewell V, et al. Efficacy of a Cancer Research UK
communicating skills training model for oncologists: a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet 2002;359:650–6.

63 Tobias J, Souhami R. Fully informed consent can be needlessly cruel. British Medical
Journal 1993;307:119–20.

64 Baum, M. The ethics of randomised controlled trials. European Journal of Surgical
Oncology 1995;21:136–7.

65 Thornton H. Why do we need clinical trials? BACUP News; issue 30, autumn 1997, p7.

66 de Takats P, Harrison J. Clinical trials and stroke. Lancet 1999;353:150.

67 Chalmers I, Lindley R. Double standards on informed consent to treatment. In: Doyal L, Tobias JS, eds. Informed consent in medical research. London: BMJ Books 2001, pp266–75.

68 Ashcroft, R. Giving medicine a fair trial. British Medical Journal 2000;320:1686.

69 Savulescu J, Chalmers I, Blunt J. Are research ethics committees behaving unethically? Some suggestions for improving performance and accountability. British Medical Journal 1996;313:1390–3.

70 European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet 1998;351:1379–87.

71 Cina CS, Clase CM, Haynes RB. Carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid
stenosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 3. Art. No.:
CD001081. Available from: [accessed 3 January

72 The Magpie Trial Collaborative Group. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised, placebocontrolled trial. Lancet 2002;359:1877–90.

73 Duley L, Gu¨ lmezoglu AM, Henderson-Smart DJ. Magnesium sulphate and other
anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000025. Available from: [accessed 3 January 2006].

74 Grimwade K, Swingler, G, Grimley Evans J. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in adults with HIV. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003108. Available from: [accessed 3 Jan. 2006].

75 Chintu C, Bhat GJ, Walker AS, et al. Co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against
opportunistic infections in HIV-infected Zambian children (CHAP): a double blind
randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:1865–71.

76 MRC News Release. Antibiotic drug almost halves AIDS-related death in children.
London: MRC, November 19, 2004.

77 Soares K, McGrath J, Adams C. Evidence and tardive dyskinesia. Lancet

78 Thornley B, Adams C. Content and quality of 2000 controlled trials in schizophrenia
over 50 years. British Medical Journal 1998;317:1181–4.

79 Howell CJ, Chalmers I. A review of prospectively controlled comparisons of epidural
with non-epidural forms of pain relief during labour. International Journal of Obstetric
Anesthesia 1992;1:93–110.

80 Chan A-W, Hro´ bjartsson A, Haahr MT, Gøtzsche PC, Altman DG. Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles. Journal of the American Medical Association 2004;291:2457–65.

81 Horn J, de Haan RJ, Vermeulen RD, Luiten PGM, Limburg M. Nimodipine in animal model experiments of focal cerebral ischemia: a systematic review. Stroke 2001;32:2433–8.

82 Lau J, Schmid CH, Chalmers TC. Cumulative meta-analysis of clinical trials builds evidence of exemplary clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1995;48: 45–57.

83 Altman DG. The scandal of poor medical research. British Medical Journal 1994;308:283–4.

84 Tallon D, Chard J, Dieppe P. Relation between agendas of the research community and the research consumer. Lancet 2000;355:2037–40.

85 Cream J, Cayton H. New drugs for Alzheimer’s disease – a consumer perspective. CPD Bulletin Old Age Psychiatry 2001;2:80–2.

86 Cohen CI, D’Onofrio A, Larkin L, Berkholder P, Fishman H. A comparison of consumer and provider preferences for research on homeless veterans. Community Mental Health Journal 1999;35:273–9.

87 Griffiths KM, Jorm AF, Christensen H, et al. Research priorities in mental health, Part 2: an evaluation of the current research effort against stakeholders’ priorities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2002;36:327–39.

88 Chalmers I. Current controlled trials: an opportunity to help improve the quality of clinical research. Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2000;1:3–8. Available from : [accessed 12 December 2005].

89 Safeguarding participants in controlled trials [Editorial]. Lancet 2000;355:1455–63.

90 Weatherall D. Academia and industry: increasingly uneasy bedfellows. Lancet 2000;355:1574.

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